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The Tragedy of Vaccinations
Part 4 -  Preventing Adverse Vaccine Events

“Unfortunately, we are living in an age that often seems to be traveling faster than the speed of light. We’re all looking for fast answers to our problems … easy solutions … quick fixes … free lunches … elevators to success … and this futile search for a philosopher’s stone that will somehow magically transform our daily efforts into trunks of gold has blinded us to the old laws that have always worked and always will work.”

Og Mandino, “A Better Way to Live”

Preventing Adverse Vaccine Events

Time has proven that in order to solve a problem, one must understand the source of the problem. Then, logical and effective solutions must be not only proposed but also swiftly implemented.

American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA)

In April 2001, the AVMA Executive Board approved the article “Principles of Vaccines.” (1) In April 2007, the AVMA Executive Board essentially re-approved the same document, except the text was rearranged and the title was changed to “Vaccination Principles.” (2) Although the AVMA’s vaccination recommendations remain the same in this six-year period, even its most simple and rational proposals have not been implemented. Consequently, the improvement of vaccines and vaccination protocols has floundered while the over-vaccination of animals and adverse vaccine events have flourished.

As we discuss ways in which we can all play a part in preventing adverse vaccine events, let us constantly remind ourselves of the following words of the AVMA’s Executive Board:

  “The goal for a vaccination program is to prevent disease …” (3)  

The latter phrase is important, particularly because vaccines are not only creating poor health but also creating more diseases. (4,5,6)

Non-Adjuvanted Vaccines

Conversations with a Merial representative in 2004 regarding Léon’s fibrosarcoma (7) revealed that adjuvants used in vaccines (8) have been associated with vaccine-induced sarcomas. (9-10) As a result, this gentleman said that Merial is working to produce non-adjuvanted vaccines.

Although the production of non-adjuvanted vaccines may be a step in the right direction to preventing adverse vaccine reactions, the AVMA’s “Vaccination Principles” says, “adverse events may be associated with the antigen, adjuvant, carrier, preservative, or a combination thereof.” (11) Thus, solely removing the adjuvant from vaccines (12) is not the ultimate solution in the prevention of adverse vaccine events.

Vaccine Administration: Lower Limb or Intra-Muscular

Another proposal for the often fatal vaccine-induced sarcoma is to vaccinate the animal in the lower limb. The reasoning is that if the animal develops a cancerous growth, the limb can be amputated. However, as stated by Dr. Barbara E. Kitchell, DVM, PhD, DACVIM in “Vaccine-Associated Feline Sarcoma Task Force: Roundtable Discussion,” “some sarcomas are so aggressive that they recur at the amputation site.” (13)

In the VAFSTF: Roundtable Discussion, Dr. Ronald D. Schultz, PhD points out another important oversight regarding the administration of vaccines in the lower limb. Dr. Shultz says,

  “… I doubt that anyone has looked at the effect on the immune response when rabies virus or FeLV vaccines are given distally in the rear limbs of cats. Those vaccines were not tested or licensed if given in those sites.” (14)  

While on the topic of erroneous vaccine solutions, Dr. Dennis W. Macy, DVM, MS, DACVIM says,

  “ … a misconception exists that sarcomas are less likely to form if the vaccine is given IM as opposed to SC. All this does is make a mass more difficult to detect; you can't feel a granuloma, and you're not going to feel a sarcoma until it is large. It delays treatment and worsens the prognosis.” (15)  

Therefore, the barbaric, band-aid proposal of vaccinating an animal in the lower limb, or even giving the vaccine intra-muscularly instead of subcutaneously, will not prevent vaccine-induced sarcomas. In fact, these proposals will probably not even prevent any adverse vaccine events.

Pharmaceutical Companies

There are many things that can and must be done now in order to avoid adverse vaccine events. For example, as stated in the AVMA’s “Vaccination Principles,”

  “There is a critical need for more fully developed, scientifically based, and statistically valid evaluation of vaccine products to provide practitioners with a basis for developing vaccination programs that maximize benefits and minimize associated risks for the patients under their care.” (16)  

Thus, it is important that pharmaceutical companies (17) (and anyone involved in the production of vaccines) improve the safety and efficacy of vaccines; substantiate all claims with accurate, objective, scientific data; and inform clients of the true duration of protection offered by vaccines.

Also, when producing vaccines it is not logical to combine several vaccines in one injection. In fact, it is dangerous. Combining multiple vaccines in one injection is a great assault on the animal’s system. We do not know the short or long-term effects of these cocktail-like vaccines, and we do not know how they combine with other products the animal may be receiving. As stated in the “The 2006 American Association of Feline Practitioners Feline Vaccine Advisory Panel Report,”

  “Although increasing the number of vaccine components in a single product may be more convenient for the practitioner or owner, the likelihood of adverse events may increase as more antigens are added to combination products. Also, interference among vaccine components can and will occur with certain combination products…” (18)  

Pharmaceutical companies can also prevent adverse vaccine reactions by ensuring that vaccines are not contaminated with unwanted materials or organisms. In “Human Illness Associated with Use of Veterinary Vaccines,” Dr. Ruth Berkelman, MD says,

  “In addition to problems associated with the vaccine virus strain itself, there are numerous examples of vaccines that have been contaminated with extraneous microorganisms, including live Mycoplasma organisms and bluetongue virus… Bluetongue virus causes disease in wild and domestic ruminants, and it was not known to cause natural infection and disease in dogs.” (19)  

Therefore, by providing safe, effective, individually packaged, single antigen vaccines, pharmaceutical companies can play a significant role in the prevention of adverse vaccine events.

Teaching Institutions

Education and experience shape the way we think and act. As a result, it is imperative that veterinary teaching institutions provide aspiring veterinarians with accurate, objective information; encourage them to abide by the philosophy of “First Do No Harm;” and motivate them to maintain high professional standards of conduct at all times.

Although creative, open-minded thinking has resulted in great technological advancements, many aspects of the current veterinary curriculum are stuck in a self-limiting, biased and narrow-minded approach to healing. There is an over-emphasis on vaccinating, medicating and operating on animals, and there is an under-emphasis on key fundamental principles, thinking “out of the box,” and common sense. As a result, the majority of veterinarians have a “medicate and operate” methodology, and more health problems are being created rather than solved.

Teaching institutions have many opportunities to develop their curriculums to improve the health of animals and prevent adverse reactions to veterinary products. Unfortunately, these institutions often fail to disclose important information to their students and are slow to discard unhealthy traditions. Resulting problems are flagrant as they pertain to vaccinations. For example, although extensive scientific data abounds regarding the myriad of problems associated with vaccines, veterinary teaching establishments have not been actively sharing current, life-saving data with aspiring veterinarians, and have not been aggressively eliminating the traditional and dangerous practice of over-vaccinating animals. (20)

In order to improve vaccination protocols and prevent adverse vaccine events, teaching institutions must inform students that vaccines are not nearly as harmless as previously taught. In fact, overwhelming scientific data proves that animals suffer serious and often fatal, adverse vaccine reactions. Students must also be advised that there is no scientific data to substantiate the administration of annual vaccines. As stated by Dr. Ronald D. Schultz, PhD in “Duration of immunity for canine and feline vaccines: A review,”

  All vaccines, with the exception of rabies vaccines, were licensed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) based on challenge studies performed from only a few weeks to a few months after vaccination. All the vaccine labels included the statement “Annual Revaccination Recommended” without the knowledge of whether the true DOI was a year or a life time.” (21)  

In addition, as stated by Dr. W. Jean Dodds, DVM in “Vaccination Protocols for Dogs Predisposed to Vaccine Reactions,”

  “Giving annual boosters when they are not necessary has the client paying for a service which is likely to be of little benefit to the pet’s existing level of protection against these infectious diseases. It also increases the risk of adverse reactions from the repeated exposure to foreign substances.” (22)  

It is also important for teaching institutions to inform aspiring veterinarians of other potential problems associated with vaccines. For example, in “Human Illness Associated with Use of Veterinary Vaccines,” Dr. Ruth Berkelman, MD discusses serious issues that are often over-looked. More specifically, she says,

  “Veterinary vaccines are intended only for use in animals and are not tested for safety in humans. However, humans may inadvertently be exposed to these products by means of unintentional inoculation or other routes of exposure.” (23)  

She also says, “The administration of live vaccines to animals destined for the human food supply may result in human exposure to a vaccine strain.” (24) And,

  “Relatively little attention, however, has been paid to the increasing rate of exposure of humans to vaccinia virus due to contact with wildlife baits… A different consideration is whether the release of live vaccinia virus into the environment may lead to the creation of a wildlife reservoir in the United States for vaccinia virus.” (25)  

Also of significance is that Dr. Berkelman says,

  The increased development and use of veterinary vaccines (including live vaccines), the increased aerosol administration of vaccines, and the increased proportion of individuals in the United States who are immunosuppressed and who may be exposed to these vaccines or to animals shedding the vaccine strains suggest that increased vigilance may be warranted… as the frequency and administration of animal vaccines increase, we must be vigilant regarding human exposure and safety. Health consequences of human exposure to animal vaccines or vaccine strains cannot be quantified if they are not recognized and reported.” (26)  

Therefore, in order to prevent adverse vaccine reactions, educational establishments must inform aspiring veterinarians that both animals and humans can be affected adversely by the use of veterinary vaccines. In addition, students must be reminded that preventive health care does not come in the form of an injection, a pill, or as a result of any other chemical concoction. Rather, preventive health care derives from combining a balanced diet, a safe environment and a healthy lifestyle.

Instead of limiting students by focusing on traditional methods of health care, veterinary programs should challenge students to explore and utilize the benefits of other health modalities, including nutrition, herbal supplements, homeopathy, acupuncture, massage therapy, magnetic and light therapy, chiropractic treatments and dark field microscopy. These tools will enable practitioners to provide effective preventive health care, and give them more opportunities to diagnose accurately and to solve the health problems of the animals entrusted in their care.


As the duty of veterinarians is to work in the best interest of animals, veterinarians must be at the forefront of current vaccine data. In order to do this, they should embrace the opportunity to attend current vaccine seminars. Surprisingly, many veterinarians are resistant to learning vaccine protocols which are based on the safety and efficacy of vaccines, along with the specific needs of each animal. Instead, the majority of practitioners continue to offer the standard, money making, one-size-fits-all vaccination protocol.

In “The History Of a Passion For Change,” Dr. Bob Rogers, DVM says,

  “While attending conferences like WSVMA and NAVMC I have asked over 400 DVMs from various parts of the country if they attended the seminars on New Vaccination Protocols. I was told by all but one, ‘I don’t care what the data says, I am not changing.’ One DVM here on VIN even said ‘I am not changing until the AVMA makes me change.’” (27)  

Such a childish attitude towards vaccinations does not bode well for the medical community. In fact, as stated by Dr. W. Jean Dodds, DVM in “Vaccination Protocols for Dogs Predisposed to Vaccine Reactions,”

  “To ignore or dismiss these issues can jeopardize the client-patient relationship and result in the client going elsewhere for veterinary services or even turning away from seeking professional care for these preventive health measures… The accumulated evidence indicates that vaccination protocols should no longer be considered as a ‘one size fits all’ program.” (28)  

In addition to creating a vaccination protocol based on the individual requirements of an animal -- age, size, breed, health, lifestyle and previous vaccinations -- there are other easy ways in which veterinarians can prevent adverse vaccine reactions. For example, it has become a routine veterinary procedure to vaccinate and spay/neuter an animal on the same day. As we know that the latter procedure is a stressful event which requires medicating the animal, common sense tells us that the animal should not be vaccinated on, or even close to, the same day that it is spayed/neutered. This reasoning goes hand-in-hand with the philosophy that animals who are unhealthy, pregnant, or in a compromised situation, should not be vaccinated. It also goes hand-in-hand with the AVMA’s vaccination statement which says, “… product efficacy and/or safety can be impacted by the use of concurrent therapeutic approaches that may or may not be cited as a contraindication or warning on the product label.” (29)

Another potentially problematic practice that is occurring is that animals are being vaccinated and microchipped in the same or nearby bodily location. Unfortunately, implanting a microchip (30) and vaccinating (or giving any type of injection) in the same area of the body may create a double inflammatory effect. As many medical practitioners and pathologists believe that inflammation plays a role in the development of sarcomas, vaccinating and microchipping in the same bodily location may be like adding fuel to a fire, and, therefore, must be avoided. (31)

As previously mentioned, it is often assumed that only animals experience adverse reactions to veterinary vaccines. However, Dr. Ruth Berkelman, MD says practitioners must take precautionary measures to ensure that their human clients are not exposed to veterinary vaccines. She also cites the case of a veterinarian who inadvertently “sprayed the 14-year-old boy directly in the face with an aerosol that contained parainfluenza virus and B. bronchiseptica live vaccine, known by most pet owners as the “kennel cough” vaccine. The veterinarian had planned to administer the vaccine intranasally to the boy’s dog. The boy was holding the dog’s head; when the dog moved, the veterinarian sprayed the vaccine directly into the boy’s face, and the boy received the dose intended for the 30-kg dog.” (32)

Dr. Berkelman says,

  “No special precautions to avoid human exposure are routinely taken during administration of this aerosol animal vaccine… Even when administered properly, there may be opportunity for human exposure, especially if the animal sneezes, which is a common occurrence after intranasal administration of a liquid. In addition, the animal may be able to transmit the vaccine strain during the period of active infection.” (33)  

Therefore, as we do not know the short or long-term effects of human exposure to veterinary vaccines, practitioners must exercise caution (for their safety and the safety of their human clients) when administering veterinary vaccines to animals.

Another simple and effective way that veterinarians can prevent adverse vaccine reactions is to record and report accurately all adverse and all suspected adverse vaccine reactions. (34) As stated in the AVMA’s “Vaccination Principles,”

  “Current adverse event reporting systems need significant improvement in the capture, analysis and reporting of adverse events. Practitioner commitment to adverse event reporting, and timely access for practitioners to current analysis of adverse event data, are essential to providing optimal patient care.” (35)  

Also, as stated in the “2006 AAHA Canine Vaccine Guidelines, Revised,”

  “… reported adverse events can lead to detection of previously unrecognized reactions, detection of increases in known reactions, recognition of risk factors associated with reactions, identification of vaccine lots with unusual events or unexpected numbers of adverse events, and further clinical, epidemiological, or laboratory studies. Therefore, veterinarians are encouraged to report any clinically significant adverse event occurring during or after administration of any vaccine …” (36)  

The reporting of adverse reactions to veterinary products is currently a voluntary procedure. Unfortunately, the medical community has an abysmal record for reporting adverse reactions of any kind. In addition, when the caregiver of an animal reports an adverse reaction, the experience can be incredibly frustrating and disheartening. (37)

Similar to teaching institutions and pharmaceutical companies, veterinarians have many easy and effective ways to prevent adverse vaccine events. Sadly, many practitioners refuse to evolve in this domain. As a result, countless animals continue to suffer needlessly from adverse vaccine reactions.

Regulating Organizations

Organizations which regulate pharmaceutical companies and veterinarians have a variety of ways to prevent adverse vaccine events. However, the actions of many regulating organizations indicate that their agendas do not necessarily entail making the wisest decisions on behalf of the animals, or the public. For example, regulating organizations are able to require the public to have animals vaccinated with products that are scientifically proven to cause serious illnesses and even fatal diseases, yet do not require those who produce, promote or sell vaccines, to provide accurate, objective, scientific vaccine data. In addition, regulating organizations do not require veterinarians to report adverse vaccine reactions, and continue to allow veterinarians to over-vaccinate animals. (38)

Agencies which mandate the administration of an annual, or even a tri-annual rabies vaccine, must remember that scientific data proves that the rabies vaccine contributes not only to the poor health of animals but also to the development of more diseases. (39) Also, mandating the use of a vaccine for an animal who has, or has had, a vaccine-induced sarcoma, is akin to writing its death sentence. As stated by Dr. Margaret C. McEntee, DVM, DACVIM, DACVR in the VAFSTF: Roundtable Discussion, “We have seen cats live long enough to get another vaccine-associated sarcoma from subsequent vaccine administration at another site.” (40) And, Dr. Mattie Hendrick, VMD, DACVP says, “We have anecdotal evidence that a cat that has had a vaccine-associated sarcoma is more likely to get a second one if it’s revaccinated. Why take the risk?” (41) Therefore, organizations that mandate the excessive use of the rabies vaccine -- or any other vaccine which has the potential to harm or kill an animal -- must immediately re-evaluate and change their policy. (42)

In order to provide safer and more effective vaccines, organizations that are involved in the regulation of these products must implement the appropriate checks and balances on pharmaceutical companies and veterinarians. Also, these regulating organizations must remember that they are supposed to work in the best interest of the animals and the public, not for the financial gains of pharmaceutical companies or any other group or individual.


There are many ways in which the public can play a decisive role in preventing adverse vaccine reactions. For example, the public can do research regarding vaccinations. (43-44) It can also encourage and support practitioners, researchers and laypersons who have the courage and integrity to expose the damage done by vaccinations. Because of the work of these individuals, the public has the opportunity to make educated vaccination decisions and, therefore, prevent adverse vaccine events.

Also, when selecting a customized vaccine protocol for a healthy animal who is not pregnant, the public may wish to consider the following advice of Dr. Don Hamilton, DVM. He says, “There are four criteria that are at the center of any vaccine decision. One should only consider administering a vaccine if all four criteria are met:

1.   The disease is serious, even life threatening.
2.   The animal is or will be exposed to the disease.
3.   The vaccine for the disease is known to be effective.
4.   The vaccine for the disease is considered safe.” (45)

Two extremely powerful methods the public can use to prevent adverse vaccine events are those that pertain to the profitability of vaccines. First, the public can utilize the power of supply and demand. More specifically, when enough people stop purchasing vaccines, it will be unprofitable to supply them. As profit is the ultimate objective of those who sell vaccines, these products will not be produced if they are not profitable.

Second, as stated in the AVMA’s “Vaccination Principles,” “there is a potential legal liability for all medical procedures including vaccination.” (46) Therefore, when more people exercise their legal rights regarding adverse vaccine reactions, vaccines will become too costly for those who sell them. So, once again, no profit means no product.

When an animal experiences an adverse or suspected adverse vaccine event, the animal’s caregiver should ask the attending veterinarian to report the incident to the pharmaceutical company that made the vaccine and to the organization that regulates veterinary vaccines in the country in which the animal was vaccinated. (47) If the veterinarian does not report the adverse event, the animal’s caregiver should report it. In order to do this, accurate documentation is necessary. For example, the name of the vaccine(s) administered, the name of the company that produced the vaccine, the date and bodily location that the vaccine was administered, blood results, veterinary records, biopsy and pathology reports, and any other relevant information. It is important to keep a copy of all documentation, and insist that the pharmaceutical company and regulating organization acknowledge receipt of the correspondence.

Whatever decision is made regarding a vaccination protocol, it is essential to remember that good health does not depend on vaccines. Good health depends on utilizing methods that always have been and always will be successful. For example, Hippocrates once said, “Let food be thy medicine, and let thy medicine be food.” (48) Therefore, applying the basic principles of nutrition are fundamental to good health.

Although we are living in an era when it is increasingly difficult to obtain food and water that has not been recklessly contaminated with pesticides, heavy metals, medications, (49,50,51) genetically modified ingredients, (52-53) and many more toxic and unnatural substances, (54-55) pure, organic farming offers some relief to this dilemma. So, when purchasing pet food, (56-57) read carefully the ingredients on the label; while reading, bear in mind that many ingredients are either not listed on the package or they are cleverly worded; then cross reference the listed ingredients with other accurate, objective, nutritional data. (58)

In addition to providing a balanced, nutritious diet for the animal, it is critical to strengthen its immune system and detoxify its body. Providing a clean lifestyle, minimal stress, fresh air, and appropriate exercise are also essential to the overall health of the animal. A qualified holistic practitioner could be helpful in these areas.

Thus, by learning the truth about vaccines, supporting those who provide accurate information, utilizing the rule of profitability, reporting adverse reactions, and providing a healthy lifestyle for the animals, the public can play a decisive role in preventing adverse vaccine reactions.


Once upon a time, people believed the Earth was the center of the Universe. They also believed the Earth was flat. In fact, people even believed that if they were not careful, they could fall off the edge of the planet. These beliefs were not based on accurate scientific data but rather on the nonsensical teachings of the “experts” and those in powerful positions.

When Galileo Galilei (59) questioned and challenged these beliefs, he was ridiculed and even placed under house arrest. Fortunately, accurate scientific data, common sense and time proved that Mr. Galilei was correct, and people eventually changed their way of thinking about the shape of the Earth and its placement in the Universe.

Today we ask ourselves why no one questioned the “experts” or the authorities. We even mock those who ignored or chastised the great Galileo Galilei. Yet, today, the majority of people make the mistake of not questioning or challenging the “experts” or authorities regarding the safety, efficacy and necessity of vaccinations.

Until recently, I wholeheartedly believed in vaccinations for our animals and ourselves. My belief was not based on scientific research but on what I was programmed to believe. However, because of my experiences with a unique French Bulldog named Léon, (60-61) my beliefs about vaccines were challenged, and I began to research the topic of vaccines. To my surprise, disappointment and horror, I learned that I, along with countless others, had been deceived; and I learned about the tragedy of vaccinations:

1.   Scientific data proves that vaccines are not nearly as safe as the “experts” and authorities have led us to believe.  
2.   Scientific data proves that vaccines are harming our animals and creating diseases of equal or greater danger to those diseases that vaccines allegedly prevent.  
3.   No accurate, objective scientific data substantiates an annual vaccination protocol. Instead, scientific data demonstrates that over-vaccinating animals increases the risks of adverse vaccine reactions.  
4.   Over-vaccinating animals benefits only those who make money from vaccines. In fact, a huge amount of money is made not only directly from vaccines but also indirectly from treating adverse vaccine reactions.  
5.   Veterinarians are not required to report adverse vaccine reactions or reactions to any veterinary product. Unfortunately, only an extremely small percentage of adverse reactions are reported and acknowledged. As a result, the myth that “adverse vaccine events are rare” is perpetuated.  
6.   Those involved in the production, promotion, sale and approval of vaccines are well aware of the myriad of problems associated with vaccinations. However, because these individuals and groups have been lured by profit and power, they ignore and ridicule those who speak out regarding adverse vaccine events, and fail to take the appropriate action to solve these problems.  

Galileo Galilei once said, “I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason and intellect has intended us to forgo their use.” (62)

Let us heed the words of the wise Galileo Galilei.

Let us not pledge blind allegiance to anyone, not even to the “experts” or authorities, when the teachings or regulations are not based on sound principles and accurate data.

Let us remind ourselves that vaccines, or any form of chemical manipulation or chemical intoxication, are not the solution to the health problems of our animals or ourselves. A balanced diet, safe environment, and healthy lifestyle have always been and always will be the solution.

Jeanne, on behalf of Léon, and dedicated to those who have suffered an adverse vaccine reaction


The author wishes to thank Dr. W. Jean Dodds, DVM (www.noble-leon.com/documents) and Catherine O'Driscoll (www.canine-health-concern.org.uk) for their support and for their dedication to the truth about vaccines.

The Tragedy of Vaccinations
Part I - Do Vaccines Cause Cancer?
Part II - Are We Over-Vaccinating?
Part III - Why Are We Over-Vaccinating?
Part IV - Preventing Adverse Vaccine Events

Click here to return to Letters index page

“What Constitutes a Vaccine Adverse Event?”

“For purposes of this discussion, a vaccine adverse event is defined as any undesirable side effect or unintended effect (including lack of desired result) associated with the administration of a licensed biological product (vaccine). For vaccines administered to animals, adverse events are those involving the health of the treated animal and include the apparent failure to protect against a disease. An adverse event includes any injury, toxicity, or sensitivity reaction associated with the use of a vaccine, whether or not the event can be directly attributed to the vaccine. In other words, it is appropriate to report any known or suspected event associated with vaccination. A vaccine adverse event report may be defined as a communication concerning the occurrence of one or more suspected adverse events; the communication identifies the product(s) and animal(s) involved in the event(s) and the individual submitting the report.”

“2006 AAHA Canine Vaccine Guidelines, Revised” -- www.aahanet.org


(1) “Principles of Vaccines (Approved by the AVMA Executive Board April 2001)” – This article was revised in April 2007 and replaced with “Vaccination Principles.”
(2) “Vaccination Principles (Approved by the AVMA Executive Board April 2001; revised April 2007)” – Prior to the 2007 revision, this article was entitled “Principles of Vaccines.” -- www.avma.org
(3) Ibid
(4) “Adverse Vaccine Reactions” by Dr. W. Jean Dodds, DVM -- www.noble-leon.com
(5) “Avoiding Vaccine Reactions in Dogs and Cats” by Craig E. Greene - 28th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association: October 24 – 27, 2003; Bangkok, Tailand -- www.vin.com
(6) Books: “What Vets Don’t Tell You About Vaccines” and “Shock To The System” by Catherine O’Driscoll -- www.canine-health-concern.org.uk
(7) “Correspondence To Merial Regarding Léon’s Fibrosarcoma” by Jeanne, website writer for www.noble-leon.com
(8) “Adjuvants in Veterinary Vaccines: Modes of Action and Adverse Effects” by Anna R. Spickler and James A. Roth - Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine: May 2003, Vol. 17, Issue 3, pp. 273–281 -- apt.allenpress.com
(9) “Do Vaccines Cause Cancer?” by Jeanne, website writer for www.noble-leon.com
(10) “Adverse Consequences of Vaccination” -- www.merckvetmanual.com
(11) “Vaccination Principles (Approved by the AVMA Executive Board April 2001; revised April 2007)” -- www.avma.org
(12) “Vaccine Ingredients” -- www.mercola.com
(13) “Vaccine-Associated Feline Sarcoma Task Force: Roundtable Discussion - The current understanding and management of vaccine-associated sarcomas in cats” - Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA): June 1, 2005, Vol. 226, No. 11 -- www.avma.org
(14) Ibid
(15) Ibid
(16) “Vaccination Principles (Approved by the AVMA Executive Board April 2001; revised April 2007)” -- www.avma.org
(17) “Big Bucks, Big Pharma: Marketing Disease & Pushing Drugs” -- www.mediaed.org
(18) “The 2006 American Association of Feline Practitioners Feline Vaccine Advisory Panel Report” – JAVMA: November 2006, Vol. 229, No. 9 -- www.aafponline.org
(19) “Human Illness Associated with Use of Veterinary Vaccines” by Dr. Ruth L. Berkelman, MD - Clinical Infectious Diseases: 2003, 37, pp. 407–414 -- www.journals.uchicago.edu (Abstract) or www.journals.uchicago.edu (Full Text available with Cookies enabled)
(20) “Why Are We Over-Vaccinating?” by Jeanne, website writer for www.noble-leon.com
(21) “Duration of immunity for canine and feline vaccines: A review” by Dr. Ronald D. Schulz, PhD - Veterinary Microbiology: October 2006, Vol. 117, Issue 1, pp. 75–79 -- www.eskievet.com
(22) “Vaccination Protocols for Dogs Predisposed to Vaccine Reactions” by Dr. W. Jean Dodds, DVM - Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association: May/June 2001, Vol. 37, pp. 211-214 -- www.noble-leon.com
(23) “Human Illness Associated with Use of Veterinary Vaccines” by Dr. Ruth L. Berkelman, MD -- www.journals.uchicago.edu (Abstract) or www.journals.uchicago.edu (Full Text available with Cookies enabled)
(24) Ibid
(25) Ibid
(26) Ibid
(27) “The History Of a Passion For Change” by Dr. Bob Rogers, DVM -- www.critteradvocacy.org
(28) “Vaccination Protocols for Dogs Predisposed to Vaccine Reactions” by Dr. W. Jean Dodds, DVM -- www.noble-leon.com
(29) “Vaccination Principles (Approved by the AVMA Executive Board April 2001; revised April 2007)” -- www.avma.org
(30) “Advanced Literature > Microchips” -- www.noble-leon.com
(31) “Correspondence To Merial Regarding Léon’s Fibrosarcoma” by Jeanne, website writer for www.noble-leon.com
(32) “Human Illness Associated with Use of Veterinary Vaccines” by Dr. Ruth L. Berkelman, MD -- www.journals.uchicago.edu (Abstract) or www.journals.uchicago.edu (Full Text available with Cookies enabled)
(33) Ibid
(34) “Reporting Adverse Reactions” -- www.noble-leon.com
(35) “Vaccination Principles (Approved by the AVMA Executive Board April 2001; revised April 2007)” -- www.avma.org
(36) “2006 AAHA Canine Vaccine Guidelines, Revised” -- www.aahanet.org
(37) “Reporting Léon's Adverse Reaction - Lingering Questions” by Jeanne, website writer for www.noble-leon.com
(38) “Are We Over-Vaccinating?” by Jeanne, website writer for www.noble-leon.com
(39) “Canine Rabies Challenge Studies Begin!” - The Rabies Challenge: World-Famous Scientists Donate Services to The Rabies Challenge Fund Charitable Trust -- www.rabieschallengefund.org
(40) Dr. Margaret C. McEntee, DVM, DACVIM, DACVR - “Vaccine-Associated Feline Sarcoma Task Force: Roundtable Discussion - The current understanding and management of vaccine-associated sarcomas in cats” -- www.avma.org
(41) Dr. Mattie Hendrick, VMD, DACVP – Ibid
(42) Letter from Dr. Bob Rogers, DVM of Critter Fixer Pet Hospital to Dr. Tom Sidwa of the Texas Department of State Health Services -- www.pet-wellness-update.com
(43) “Layman’s Literature > Vaccines” -- www.noble-leon.com
(44) “Advanced Literature > Vaccines” -- www.noble-leon.com
(45) “Vaccination for Cats: Helpful or Harmful?” by Dr. Don Hamilton, DVM -- www.holisticat.com
(46) “Vaccination Principles (Approved by the AVMA Executive Board April 2001; revised April 2007)” -- www.avma.org
(47) “Reporting Adverse Reactions” -- www.noble-leon.com
(48) Hippocrates -- en.wikipedia.org
(49) “Environmental effects of human pharmaceuticals” by John Phillip Sumpter - Drug Information Journal: 2007, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 143-147 -- cat.inist.fr
(50) “Are Veterinary Medicines Causing Environmental Risks?” by Alistair B. A. Boxall, Dana W. Kolpin, Bent Halling-Sørensen and Johannes Tolls - Environmental Science and Technology: 2003, Vol. 37, No. 15, pp. 286A-294A -- ec.europa.eu
(51) “Pharmacoenvironmentology – a component of pharmacovigilance” by Syed Ziaur Rahman, Rahat Ali Khan, Varun Gupta and Misbah Uddin - Environmental Health: July 2007, Vol. 6:20 -- www.ehjournal.net
(52) “Seeds of Deception” by Jeffrey M. Smith -- www.wanttoknow.info
(53) “Genetically Modified Foods, Organisms: Excerpts of Genetically Modified Food Articles in Major Media” -- www.wanttoknow.info
(54) Book: “Our Stolen Future” by Theo Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski and John Peterson Myers -- www.ourstolenfuture.org
(55) “Toxic Inaction: Why poisonous, unregulated chemicals end up in our blood” by Mark Schapiro -- www.harpers.org
(56) “The true horrors of pet food revealed: Prepare to be shocked by what goes into dog food and cat food” by Jessica Smith -- www.naturalnews.com
(57) Book: “Food Pets Die For: Shocking Facts About Pet Food” by Ann N. Martin -- www.newsagepress.com
(58) “Name Your Poison: A Guide To The Most Common Toxins” -- www.purezing.com
(59) Galileo Galilei -- en.wikipedia.org
(60) “An Introduction to Léon and his story” by Jeanne, website writer for www.noble-leon.com
(61) “Gallery > Photos of Léon” -- www.noble-leon.com
(62) Galileo Galilei -- thinkexist.com/quotation

July 2008
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